Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Ionic vs Covalent Bonds - Understand the Difference

Ionic vs Covalent Bonds - Understand the Difference A molecule or compound is made when two or more atoms form a  chemical bond, linking them together. The two types of bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds. The distinction between them has to do with how equally the atoms participating in the bond share their electrons. Ionic Bonds In an ionic bond, one atom essentially donates an electron to stabilize the other atom. In other words, the electron spends most of its time close to the bonded atom.  Atoms that participate in an ionic bond have different electronegativity values from each other. A polar bond is formed by the attraction between oppositely-charged ions.  For example, sodium and chloride form an ionic bond, to make NaCl, or table salt. You can predict an ionic bond will form when two atoms have different electronegativity values and detect an ionic compound by its properties, including a tendency to dissociate into ions in water. Covalent Bonds In a covalent bond, the atoms are bound by shared electrons. In a true covalent bond, the electronegativity values are the same (e.g., H2, O3), although in practice the electronegativity values just need to be close. If the electron is shared equally between the atoms forming a covalent bond, then the bond is said to be nonpolar. Usually, an electron is more attracted to one atom than to another, forming a polar covalent bond. For example, the atoms in water, H2O, are held together by polar covalent bonds. You can predict a covalent bond will form between two nonmetallic atoms. Also, covalent compounds may dissolve in water, but dont dissociate into ions. Ionic vs Covalent Bonds Summary Heres a quick summary of the differences between ionic and covalent bonds, their properties, and how to recognize them: Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Description Bond between metal and nonmetal. The nonmetal attracts the electron, so it's like the metal donates its electron to it. Bond between two nonmetals with similar electronegativities. Atoms share electrons in their outer orbitals. Polarity High Low Shape No definite shape Definite shape Melting Point High Low Boiling Point High Low State at Room Temperature Solid Liquid or Gas Examples Sodium chloride (NaCl), Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4 ) Methane (CH4), Hydrochloric acid (HCl) Chemical Species Metal and nometal (remember hydrogen can act either way) Two nonmetals Do you understand? Test your comprehension with this quiz. Key Points The two main types of chemical bonds are ionic and covalent bonds.An ionic bond essentially donates an electron to the other atom participating in the bond, while electrons in a covalent bond are shared equally between the atoms.The only pure covalent bonds occur between identical atoms. Usually, there is some polarity (polar covalent bond) in which the electrons are shared, but spend more time with one atom than the other.Ionic bonds form between a metal and a nonmetal. Covalent bonds form between two nonmetals.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Speed Writing With Fast Notes and Shorthand

Speed Writing With Fast Notes and Shorthand Have you ever gazed at a test question and wondered where on earth it came from? Youre just certain the teacher never, ever covered the information, because it just wasnt in your notes. Then, alas, you discover that some of your classmates did record the information in their notes, and furthermore, they got the question right. This is a common frustration. We miss things when we take class notes. Very few people can write fast enough or concentrate long enough to record everything the teacher says. College lectures can stretch much longer than the lectures you receive in high school  and they can also be very detailed. For this reason, many college students address the potential problem of missing critical information by developing a personalized form of shorthand. This sounds much more complicated than it really is. You dont have to learn a squiggly-line language. You simply come up with a set of symbols or abbreviations for common words that you find in lectures. History of Shorthand Developing shortcuts in your writing is not a new idea, of course. Students have been using this method for as long as theyve been taking class notes. In fact, the origins of shorthand date back to Ancient Greece during the 4th century B.C. However, even prior to that, scribes in ancient Egypt developed two different systems – the  Hieratic  and later  the Demotic  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ which allowed them to write more quickly than they could using complex hieroglyphics. Gregg Shorthand Gregg is essentially a simpler and more efficient way to write than longhand English. Consider that the Roman alphabet we use is much more complicated necessary to distinguish one letter from another. To write a lower-case â€Å"p†, for example, requires a long, downward stroke with a clockwise loop at the top. Then, you have to pick up your pen to move on to the next letter.  Gregg’s â€Å"letters† are comprised of much simpler shapes.  Consonants are made up of either shallow curves or straight lines; vowels are loops or small hooks.  An additional advantage of Gregg is that it’s phonetic. The word â€Å"day† is written as d and a. Since letters are less complicated and joined simply, there are fewer of them to write which will increase your speed! Tips for Using Shorthand The trick is to develop a good system and to do it well. To do that, you have to practice. Try these tips: Develop a list of  the most commonly used words and make shortcuts for them.At the beginning of a term, look through the textbooks for each course. Find the common terms that youll see over and over and develop shortcuts for them.For example, words that might appear frequently in a literature class are character (ch), allegory (alg), allusion (allu), figure of speech (fos), and so on.Practice your course-specific shorthand at the beginning of the term while your text is still new and youre curious and excited about the information. Find a few interesting passages and practice writing them in shorthand.If possible, find a study partner  to read the passages to you. This will simulate the real experience of taking notes during a lecture.Time yourself for each passage you practice. Pretty soon youll start to build up speed. Sample Writing Shortcuts Sample Shortcuts @ at, about, around no. number, amount + bigger, greater, increasing ? who, what, where, why, where ! surprise, alarm, shock bf before bc because rts results resp response X across, between

Friday, February 14, 2020

W7 As Merck Serono Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

W7 As Merck Serono - Essay Example As such, they should have a wealth of competent and qualified set of human resources who could undertake roles and responsibilities which cater to the diverse needs and demands of the organization. On the other hand, in terms of technical competencies, the acquisitions of organizations, especially from diverse fields of discipline, enable DuPont to develop technological competencies, applications, human resources, infrastructure, and skill set to fit currently entrenched technology to match the newly acquired organizations. In addition, when new products have been added to their product lines, DuPont benefits through the opportunity of catering to a wide range of clientele, depending on the products or services offered, the geographic location, as well as the competitive advantage exhibited over their competitors. Gaining organizations with different product lines necessitate additional research to be undertaken by the executive management team of DuPont to ensure that they are qualified and competent to operate new businesses and develop strategies accordingly. Besides the potential benefits discussed, one strongly believes that DuPont probably gained maturity in discerning which ventures and acquisitions contributed most to meeting the organization’s mission, vision, and goals. The organization, through its executive management team and leaders, probably gained exemplary acumen in determining which ventures would be most lucrative in providing financial gains with the amounts that are to be invested in each endeavor. There are potential losses in terms of opportunity losses where the organization could have pursued some ventures that proved to be unprofitable or those which significantly mismatch their current organizational thrusts and directions. As such, instead of focusing on areas, fields of discipline, or core competencies on currently held and evidently productive ventures, the time, resources, and efforts spent locating other

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Self introductory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Self introductory - Essay Example The inclination towards radios roots from my passion for music. When I was younger, I took it upon myself to ensure family functions were kept lively through music. Over time, family gatherings held at our house became the most famous as everyone attended. I discovered that music helps me unwind and lighten up after a long day. Particularly, I have a taste for soft rock and neo-soul. Whenever I’m angry, I am certain that listening to some music will calm me down. In high school I formed a group with some of my friends where we would meet and practice dance moves whilst playing loud music. We found this relieved stress especially after exams; also it provided a form of exercise. I endeavor to remain healthy and fit therefore I go for swimming from time to time. During my high school holidays, I volunteered as a swimming instructor at the public pools. This gave me an opportunity to interact with new people and perfect my swimming. I am a reclusive person so this allowed me to work on social skills. I hope to further improve them through this course as I believe it will teach me to understand myself first and then others. Moreover, in terms of behaviorisms I hope to adopt proper habits that will make me an approachable person. As a future engineer, I hope that this course will inculcate a sense of ethical duty to the users of whichever products that I shall participate in manufacturing. This is because it is clear that laws do not encompass all ethical choices, one need to have a personal sense of ethical obligation. I believe that this course will provide the necessary framework to recognize situations of such kind and deal with them appropriately. I acknowledge that I will be faced with ‘gray’ areas that would require prudence. I anticipate to learn and apply such a virtue and that the course will involve application of real life situations. Furthermore, I look forward

Friday, January 24, 2020

ACG 2021, Introduction to Financial Accounting, Fall 2000, Exam 2 Explanations :: UFL Florida Business Accounting

ACG 2021 Fall 2000 Exam 2 Answer Key Explanation Based on the Order of Version A 1) A defined contribution program is one with â€Å"Regular, defined contributions to the fund. The fund balance changes in value with the accumulation of contributions and earnings and is decreased by benefits paid. Benefits received depend on the fund balance available at retirement.† (9-21 in the notes on page 247) 2) This is an error because ordinary repairs (ones that do not increase the original useful life, efficiency or capacity of the asset) are to be treated as expenses and entirely reported on the income statement in the year they are incurred. This error overstated assets by adding the $3,000 to the asset account incorrectly and understated N.I. by failing to record the $3,000 as an expense. 3) If the bonds are selling at 98 ½ ($24,625,000) then they are selling at a discount. This means that the market rate is higher than the stated rate. When the bonds were issued the market rate was the same as the stated rate so the market rate must have increased. (10-20 in the notes on page 274) 4) Here we need to consider two issues. Interest is not capitalized when an asset is purchased but it is capitalized when the company constructs its own asset (only for the period of construction). These concepts are discussed in chapter 8. Inventory is not a capital asset and therefore does not include financing costs. (8-3 on page 193 and 8-7 on page 197). 5) Financial Leverage is Average Total Assets/ Average Stockholders’ Equity. It measures how many dollars of assets are employed for each dollar of stockholder investment. It can be increased by increased borrowing or repurchasing outstanding stock. In laymen’s terms it is the proper use of debt to bring a higher return to owners. (Page 266 of the book, letter C of the ROE Profit Driver Analysis) 6) – 8) Segments that are used to answer the three questions have boxes around them. Using the effective method (assumed unless stated otherwise): Interest Expense = Beginning Carrying Value x Market Rate (Carrying Value = Face Value – Discount) The Present Value of the note is: P.V. = 400,000 x factor (using single sum table where i=8 and n=3). 317,520 = 400,000 x 7.938 (the attached table has 7.9383 on it but this gives a number close enough to be able to pick 317,520) The following journal entries would be made throughout the life of the note: 1/1/00 Equipment 317,520 Discount 82,480 Notes Payable 400,000 12/31/00 Interest Expense 25,402* (Question (8)) Discount 25,402 *1/1/00 Carrying value of 317,520 (400,000 – 82,480) x .

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Middle Range Theory Essay

Cohen’s article (2010) addresses the fact that the transition from adolescence to adulthood no longer occurs at age 21. Starting in the 1970’s the U.S. economy changed from a manufacturing economy to a service-based economy. The results are evident today. This economically driven shift changed how people prepared for careers and life. The traditional timing of becoming an adult, marriage, career, children, and financial independence now occurs almost 10 years later than before. Erickson’s would research and create a new sequence of eight stages including of development from 10 years up until now. For each specific conflict at each stage, which allows an individual to develop successfully. Each conflict would have to be extended as a result of the change in the economy today. The effect of resolved conflicts are more appropriate as the result the change of adolescent to adulthood no longer occurring to prevent the transition to the next stage of development. Erickson The most profound life crisis occurs at the fifth stage of development, which can be characterized by rapid physical growth, sexual maturing, concern about the perception of us by others and search of professional calling. The final stage is also crucial, as people asses their life and their achievements. If a man looks back at his life with few regrets, and feels that it was worth living, it leads to a feeling of satisfaction. If, on the contrary, the person feels hopeless, reflects on his mistakes, it leads to a feeling of despair. According to Erickson, if a person achieves a sense of wholeness and self-identity, he will not be afraid of death, and this means that this person has reached the highest form of achievements. References: Cohen, P. (2010). Long road to adulthood is growing even longer. Retrieved from on September 13, 2014.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Barnum Brown the Famous Paleontologist

Barnum Brown Born/Died 1873-1963 Nationality American Dinosaurs Named Ankylosaurus, Corythosaurus, Leptoceratops, Saurolophus About Barnum Brown Named after, but not related to, P.T. Barnum (of traveling circus fame), Barnum Brown had a flamboyant personality to match. For much of his long life, Brown was the chief fossil hunter for the American Museum of Natural History in New York, and he participated in a huge number of digs, including one that unearthed the very first Tyrannosaurus Rex skeleton in southeastern Montana (Brown, unfortunately, didn’t get to name his find; that honor went to museum president Henry Osborn). Despite the large number of fossil finds to his credit, mostly in Montana and Canadas Alberta province, Brown is remembered more as an energetic, tireless, well-traveled digger than as a published paleontologist (though he did write some influential papers). His techniques seem to have matched his personality: in the early 20th century, his preferred method for finding fossils was to blow up huge tracts of land with dynamite, scour the rubble for bones, and cart the resulting finds back to base camp on horse-drawn carriages. Befitting his name, Barnum Brown had his share of eccentricities, many of them recounted in a memoir published by his wife, I Married a Dinosaur. For publicity purposes, he insisted on being photographed at his fossil digs wearing an oversized fur coat, and he claimed to work as an intelligence asset for the U.S. government during World War I and World War II and as a corporate spy for various oil companies during his trips abroad. He was referred to by his closest friends as Mr. Bones.